Mechanisms Used by Extremophiles: Techniques for Microbial Life Survival in Extreme Environments

An extremophile can be one of many different types of organisms. Some are aerobic and some anaerobic. Some exist best in extreme environments consisting of high temperatures or low pH, while others require the complete opposite. Here are some of the most prominent types of … Continue reading Mechanisms Used by Extremophiles: Techniques for Microbial Life Survival in Extreme Environments

Safety of H1N1 Influenza Mist & Injected Vaccine: Two Types of Swine Flu Vaccination Formulas, Spray vs. Injectiion

The new H1N1 swine flu vaccines will soon be available. Are they safe? Which formulation is better? Here is what the infectious disease experts are saying. Before even comparing flu vaccine formulations, the primary question is, “Is this brand new swine flu vaccine safe?” This … Continue reading Safety of H1N1 Influenza Mist & Injected Vaccine: Two Types of Swine Flu Vaccination Formulas, Spray vs. Injectiion

The Milgram Experiment: When Does Obeying Authority Become Unethical?

HydroKlebsiella bacteria in gut biofilms produce hydrogen gas that powers the electron transport chains of stomach Helicobacter implicated in gastric ulcers and cancer. Helicobacterpylori (Hp) is a bacterial pathogen of the stomach that can cause ulcers and cancer. This bacterium moves through the mucus coating … Continue reading The Milgram Experiment: When Does Obeying Authority Become Unethical?

Cell Membranes and the Phospholipid Bilayer: The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane

The phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane protects the cell, provides structural support and controls the flow of molecules into and out of the cell. All living cells and many organelles, including the nucleus and mitochondria, are surrounded by a cell membrane, often called the … Continue reading Cell Membranes and the Phospholipid Bilayer: The Structure and Function of the Plasma Membrane

Epigenetics as an Inheritance Mechanism: The Roles of Epigenetics in Heredity and Normal Functioning

The genetic code of each and every individual organism can tell a lot about its ancestors, some basic characteristics and biases toward potential diseases. However, there are differences between individuals and species that are not recorded in the 4-letter genetic code but in its packaging … Continue reading Epigenetics as an Inheritance Mechanism: The Roles of Epigenetics in Heredity and Normal Functioning

Actin Microfilaments, Myosin and Muscle: Cytoskeletal Control of the Cortex and Cytoplasmic Membrane

Fingers of the cytoplasmic membrane can be rapidly projected by the cytoskeleton and just as rapidly contracted. The membrane is pushed out by the addition of protein subunits to rigid actin microfilaments. Motor proteins, such as myosin, can attach to different actin microfilaments and force … Continue reading Actin Microfilaments, Myosin and Muscle: Cytoskeletal Control of the Cortex and Cytoplasmic Membrane

Toxoplasmosis – Parasitic Disease: Spectrum of Human Disease Caused by the Cat Parasite, T. gondii

Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, occurs worldwide and infects more than 500 million people. Fortunately, most people don’t know they have the parasite. Toxoplasmosis symptoms in humans are variable. Acute toxoplasmosis Acute toxoplasmosis occurs when a person is first exposed to the parasite. Many people … Continue reading Toxoplasmosis – Parasitic Disease: Spectrum of Human Disease Caused by the Cat Parasite, T. gondii