Cluster of differentiation antigens are uniquely expressed on the surface of all lymphocytes. CD antigens serve as biochemical markers characteristic for a particular cell type indicating the lineage or stage of maturity. CD antigens are designated CD1, CD2, CD3, CD4, etc. The functions of many … Continue reading Immune Cells and Function: Lymphocytes and macrophages
You go back to your cubicle after lunch and find you are getting sleepy, sleepy….No, you’re not being hypnotized by your computer screen; there’s a basic biological mechanism at work urging you to nap. Human beings have a naturally biphasic sleep pattern. This means that … Continue reading The Biology of Naps: Sleep, Biochemistry and Diet Combine
What is HIV? The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to the family of viruses known as retroviruses. How does the immune system recognize HIV infected cells? In order to infect host cells HIV must first bind to a cell surface receptor (a CD4 antigen), and … Continue reading HIV Infection and Response: T-lymphocyte Infection and Response
Flu season is just around the corner. The first cases of the flu are showing up in the Northern Hemisphere. In fact around 20 million people get the flu each year. About 20,000 people die of complications due to the flu. The flu is caused … Continue reading Why Is There a Flu Vaccine Shortage?
The inner surfaces of our intestines are covered with bacteria. In fact most of our feces is composed of microbes (10 trillion organisms per gram). These microbes are very valuable to the health of our gastrointestinal tract. Certain bacteria in our intestines product vitamin D. … Continue reading Harmonious Bacterial-Intestinal Relations